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Strengthening Health Supply Chain Resilience in Low and Middle Income Countries

14th August 2023

In the quest to establish sustainable, agile, robust, and efficient health systems, low and middle income countries face unique challenges. The journey toward resilience goes beyond overcoming obstacles; it involves bouncing back even stronger. Resilience, in the context of health systems, refers to the ability to withstand and adapt to unexpected shocks, such as disease outbreaks, natural disasters, and other emergencies. A critical factor in achieving such resilience is a robust supply chain, the backbone of any healthcare system. In this article, we explore the significance of supply chain resilience in developing countries and delve into strategies to fortify health systems, making them better equipped to handle unforeseen challenges.

The Crucial Role of Supply Chain Resilience

A resilient health system hinges on a well-functioning supply chain that ensures the timely availability of medical products and equipment. This availability is essential not only in terms of quantity but also in terms of quality, affordability, and efficient service delivery, even during times of crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented test for health systems globally, laying bare their vulnerabilities, especially in developing countries. Shortages of critical supplies like personal protective equipment and testing materials have exposed the fragility of supply chains. However, this crisis also serves as a valuable lesson, shedding light on the prerequisites for building resilient health supply chains.

A robust health supply chain plays a crucial role in strengthening global health security by improving pandemic readiness. Additionally, it contributes to the attainment of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and aligns with the broader objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Overcoming Challenges in Developing Countries

Low and middle income countries encounter a unique set of challenges when striving to build resilient health systems and supply chains. Limited resources, inadequate infrastructure, and weak regulatory frameworks often impede progress. Additionally, these countries are more susceptible to external shocks, such as economic downturns, political instability, and the impacts of climate change. To navigate these challenges successfully, innovative and strategic approaches are required.

Strategies for Strengthening Supply Chain Resilience

  1. Investing in Technology: Digital technologies play a pivotal role in enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of supply chains. Developing countries can harness tools like mobile health applications for tracking medical products and optimizing logistics. Internet of Things (IoT) applications offer valuable assistance in risk management, distribution, and forecasting.
  2. Collaborating with the Private Sector: Private companies bring valuable expertise, resources, and innovation to the table. Partnering with the private sector empowers developing countries to establish stronger supply chains, tapping into the know-how of these companies in areas such as logistics, distribution, and product development.
  3. Building Local Capacity: Strengthening local capacity is essential for reducing dependence on imports and fortifying the supply chain. Training healthcare workers, enhancing infrastructure, and fostering local manufacturing capabilities contribute to a more resilient system.
  4. Strengthening Regulatory Frameworks: Ensuring that medical products adhere to international standards and are of high quality is paramount. Developing countries can bolster their regulatory frameworks to prevent substandard or counterfeit products from entering the supply chain.
  5. Embracing Data-Driven Decision-Making: Data management systems enable stakeholders to anticipate, withstand, and overcome risks in a timely and effective manner. Data-driven strategies enhance the efficiency of supply chains, increase workforce performance, and provide insights for decision-makers.

Building a More Resilient Future

Implementing these strategies brings forth numerous benefits, including long-term efficiency gains, improved quality of care, and optimized technology utilization. Health systems become better prepared to tackle crises, and communities can repurpose existing infrastructure and resources to respond effectively. The COVID-19 pandemic reminds us of the critical importance of resilient health systems and supply chains. By fortifying these vital components, developing countries can stand strong in the face of adversity, navigating disease outbreaks, natural disasters, and other emergencies with resilience and adaptability.


In conclusion, the journey toward building resilient health systems in developing countries is a challenging yet vital endeavour. Strengthening supply chains is at the core of this effort, enabling timely access to medical supplies and services, even during unexpected crises. By embracing technology, forging partnerships, investing in local capacity, enhancing regulations, and prioritizing data-driven decision-making, these countries can lay the foundation for a more resilient future. The path to resilience is not without obstacles, but the rewards in terms of improved healthcare, pandemic preparedness, and progress toward global goals are well worth the pursuit.